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Formation of Immune Complexes with a Tetanus-Derived B Cell Epitope Boosts Human T Cell Responses to Covalently Linked Peptides in an Ex Vivo Blood Loop System

Enhancing T cell responses against both viral and tumor Ags requires efficient costimulation and directed delivery of peptide Ags into APCs. Long peptide vaccines are considered favorable vaccine moieties from a clinical perspective, as they can harbor more than one immunogenic epitope enabling treatment of a broader target popu...

Complement Activation by CpG in a Human Whole Blood Loop System: Mechanisms and Immunomodulatory Effects

Phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotides can activate complement, and experimental murine studies have revealed differential effects upon simultaneous TLR stimulation and complement activation compared with either event alone. We set out to investigate the immune stimulatory effects of CpG 2006 in fresh non-anticoagulated human bl...

Extracorporeal human whole blood in motion, as a tool to predict first-infusion reactions and mechanism-of-action of immunotherapeutics

Extracorporeal human whole blood assay, as a tool to predict first-infusion reactions and mechanism-of-action of immunotherapeutics. Fletcher E.A.K. et al. International Immunopharmacol, 2017
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