When a biological drug is administered into the human circulation, it can react with different components of the human blood – in both anticipated and unexpected ways. Severe or even life-threatening infusion reactions can arise due to the activation of immune cells, cytokine release and the complement system. To safeguard participants and your reputation, you need to understand the full implications of your candidate drug before moving to clinical trials. It is therefore important to choose an in vitro method that captures the true breadth of the human immune response. Any amount of blood storage, for example, will require anticoagulants that interfere with complement and cascade systems. Immuneed’s services build on our unique platform, which uses fresh, circulating human blood and leaves these systems intact. As a result, our services address the specific challenges of each pharmaceutical type, from nanoparticles to large biologics.